Diazepam is a widely used sedative anti-anxiety medication. Trade names are: Ansiolin, Apaurin, Apozepam, Atilen, Bensedin, Diapam, Diazepam, Eridan, Lembrol, Pacitrian, Quetinil, Relanium, Saromet, Seduxen, Serenamin, Serensin, Sonacon, Stesolin, Ushamir, Valitran, Valium, Valium Roche, Vatran, Vival and others.
The medication possesses sedative, soporific, anti-anxiety, anticonvulsive, miorelaxant (relaxes muscles) and amnesic action. It intensifies the action of soporific, narcotic, neuroleptic, analgesic preparations as well as alcohol.
Diazepam is included into the List of Necessary Drugs (made by WHO) which determines a minimal assortment of the medications necessary in the system of health protection. The preparation is used, namely, for anxiety treatment as well as for insomnia, epileptic and muscle spasms, alcohol dependence. Diazepam is also used for relaxation of the patients before some medical procedure.
General information of Diazepam (Generic Valium)
Diazepam is one of the main benzodiazepine tranquilizers which are widely used in the medical practice.
The preparation and its main metabolites are taken out with urine.
Therapeutic Effects and Directions for Use of Diazepam (Generic Valium).
Diazepam is prescribed when mental disorders: neurosis, psychopathy as well as neurosis – like states when schizophrenia, organic injuries of the brain including somatic diseases which are accompanied with signs of emotional tension, anxiety, fear, irritability, phobias, insomnia.
It is also used to stop psychomotor excitement and anxiety agitation when there is one of the above mentioned diseases.
In the children’s psychoneurological practice Diazepam is prescribed when neurotic and neurosis – like states accompanied with mentioned above phenomena as well as headaches, enuresis, mood and behavior disorders.
Diazepam is used when epilepsy for convulsive paroxysms and psychic equivalents treatment, for epileptic status reduction.
Regarding its miorelaxant action the medication may be also used during different spastic states.
Diazepam is prescribed in complex with other medications for treatment of syndrome of withdrawal when alcoholism.
It is used in practice of anesthesia for preoperative preparation of the patients.
In dermatological practice the medication is applied during itching dermatoses.
The medication decreases a night secretion of gastric juices that may play an important role when it is prescribed as a sedative or opiate to patients suffering from stomach ulcer.
Diazepam has an antiarrhythmic action as well.
Diazepam is used for premedication before endoscopy and surgical operations in combination with analgesics.
The medication is an integrate part of the soporific preparation Reladorm.
Use of Diazepam (Generic Valium)
Diazepam is taken internally, intravenously or intramuscularly. A sedative effect is observed already in some minutes after intravenous use and in 30-40 minutes after intramuscular use of Diazepam, as for therapeutic action – it takes effect in 3-10 days. After acute signs of disease pass away – Diazepam is prescribed for internal use.
The Sibazonum solution should not be injected in one syringe together with other preparation to avoid precipitation.
Using Diazepam internally it is recommended to prescribe the drug starting from 0,0025-0,005 g (2,5-5 mg) 1-2 times a day for adults, and then the dose may be gradually increased. Usual one-time dose for adults is 0,005-0,01 g (5-10 mg). In separate cases (very strong fear, anxiety) a one-time dose may be increased to 0,02 g (20 mg). During the in-patient treatment and thorough medical observation a daily dose may achieve 0,045 g (45 mg). During an out-patient treatment it is not recommended to prescribe more than 0,025 g (25 mg) a day. Maximal daily dose is 0,06 g (60 mg). A curative dose is given in 2-3 draughts.
It is recommended to impaired and elderly people to take the medication in reduced doses (0,0025 g (2,5 mg) 1-2 times a day).
2,5-5 mg are prescribed for insomnia.
Diazepam is prescribed to children internally in such doses:
- In age from 1 to 3 years – one-time dose is 1 mg, daily dose is 2 mg
- From 3 to 7 years – one-time dose is 2 mg, daily dose is 6 mg
- From 7 years and older – one-time dose is 3-5 mg, daily dose is 8-10 mg
- Children of older age may increase a daily dose to 0,014 -0,016 g (14-16mg) if it is necessary.
Cessation of Diazepam use should be carried out by the way of gradual decreasing of the dose. In a result of possible development of psychological dependence – duration of uninterrupted course of treatment should not be more than 2 months. Before a second course of treatment the break should be not less than 3 weeks.
The medication is injected to the adults intravenously and intramuscularly mainly when diseases which are accompanied by psychomotor excitement, spasms, reduction of epileptic status, treatment of acute anxiety – phobic, anxiety- depressive states including alcohol psychosis and withdrawal. An average one-time dose is 10 mg (2 milliliter 0,5% of solution), an average daily dose is 30 mg. Maximal dose: one-time dose – 30mg, daily dose – 70 mg.
When epileptic status – Diazepam is injected slowly intravenously in dose from 10 to 40 mg. Intravenous and intramuscular injection may be repeated every 3-4 hours (3-4 times) if it is necessary. The maximum effect is observed during the early prescribing of Diazepam in fist 3 hours after the appearance of the status in the form of generalized attacks.
Contra-Indications of Diazepam (Generic Valium)
The medication is contra – indicated when acute diseases of liver and kidneys as well as when myasthenia. Inhibitors monoamine oxidase and derivatives of phenothiazine should not be prescribed simultaneously. Diazepam is not prescribed during pregnancy. The medication should not be used while or before work that requires quick mental or physical reaction. During the treatment by Diazepam alcohol is strongly contra- indicated.
While intravenous injection of Diazepam solution some local inflammatory processes may be observed. In connection with this it is recommended to change the place of the medication injection.
Physical characteristics of Diazepam (Generic Valium)
White or white with slightly yellow tint fine crystalline powder. It is practically insoluble in the water and it is hardly soluble in spirit.
Storing of Diazepam (Generic Valium)
Keep it in dark dry place (ampoules are kept within a temperature not above +5°С).